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Local Content Requirement - A requirement that some specific fraction of a good be produced domestically. Location-specific Advantages - Advantages natural and created that are available only or primarily in a single location. Low Context Culture - A culture in which communication is direct and the transfer of facts and information is what is paramount. Lump of Labor Fallacy - The fallacious argument which, working on the assumption that there is only a fixed amount of work in the world, says that an increasing population will inevitably lead to increasing unemployment.
This argument is often used by governments as reasoning behind reducing the workweek to reduce unemployment. Maastricht Treaty - The treaty, formally known as the Treaty on European Union, signed in , that led to the unification of many European countries. The treaty changed the name of the European Community EC to the European Union EU and led to the creation of a monetary union with a European Central bank, political and military integration, common foreign policy, and common citizenship among member countries. Macro Country Risks - Country or political risks that affect all foreign firms in a host country.
Madrid System - Allows for a trademark holder to have their trademark protected in several countries. Maquiladoras - Duty-free assembly plants located mainly in the developing world.
Maquiladoras are one type of foreign direct investment. Market Access - The extent to which a domestic industry can penetrate a related market in a foreign country.
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Access can be limited by tariffs or other non-trade barriers. Market Economy - An economy in which resource allocations, prices and other marketing decisions are primarily determined by the free market. Market Failure - A failure of arms-length markets to efficiently complete the production of a good or service. Market Internalization Advantages - Advantages that allow the multinational corporation to internalize or exploit the failure of an arms-length market to efficiently accomplish a task.
Market Maker - A financial institution that quotes bid buy and offer sell prices. Market-based Corporate Governance System - A system of corporate governance in which the supervisory board represents a dispersed set of largely equity shareholders. Matchmaker Program - A service organized by the United States International Trade Administration, this program aids firms that are new to exporting or new to the market to meet prescreened business prospects in foreign markets who are interested in their products or services.
Melanesian Spearhead Group MSG - A regional trade treaty involving the states of Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea and Fiji created to foster and accelerate economic development through trade relations and provide a political framework for regular consultation and review on the status of the Agreement. Mercantalism - An economic philosophy advocating that countries should simultaneously encourage exports and discourage imports.
The organization mandates the lowering of tariffs and other trade barriers in hopes of eventually eliminating restrictions on the movement of capitol, labor, goods and services. Method of Payment - Terms stating the acceptable forms of remittance for a given sales transaction. The party selling the product or service declares the acceptable method of payment.
Micro Country Risks - Country risks that are specific to an industry, company, or project within a host country. In leasing, this sector is dominated by single investor leases. Mixed Economy - An economy in which certain sectors of the economy are left to private ownership and free market mechanisms, while other sectors have significant government ownership and government planning. Money Supply - The total amount of currency in circulation and peso deposits subject to check of the monetary system.
Monopoly - Exclusive control or possession by one group of the means of producing or selling goods or services. Most Favored Nation MFN - A status granted to one country by another; the granting country then accords the recipient's imports and exports the most favorable treatment that it accords any country. Multidomestic strategy - A strategy emphasizing the need to be responsive to the unique conditions prevailing in different national markets.
Multinational Netting - Elimination of offsetting cash flows within the multinational corporation. Mutually Exclusive Investment Decisions - Investment decisions in which the acceptance of a project precludes the acceptance of one or more alternative projects. National Tax Policy - The way in which a nation chooses to allocate the burdens of tax collections across its residents. Government's most comprehensive source of international trade data and export promotion information.
Types of information on the NTDB include: international market research, export opportunities; indices of foreign and domestic companies; how-to market guides; reports on demographic, political, and socio-economic conditions for hundreds of countries; and much more. National Treatment - A country accords no less favorable treatment to imported goods than it does to domestic goods. Nationalization - A process whereby privately owned companies are brought under state ownership and control contrast with privatization.
Natural Advantage - Theory in economics that certain countries have a competitive advantage in certain products due to their access to specific natural resources, their climactic conditions, or their transportation system. Negative-NPV Tie-in Project - A negative net present value infrastructure development project that a local government requires of a company pursuing a positive-NPV investment project elsewhere in the economy.
Net Position - A currency position after aggregating and canceling all offsetting transactions in each currency, maturity, and security. New Protectionism - Recent efforts to pressure national governments to exercise greater control over foreign trade and foreign direct investment. New-to-export NTE - The name of the circumstances of a company that either engages in export activities for the first time, engages in exportation for first time in twenty-four months, or has only exported to because of prior unsolicited orders.
Export assistance is available to companies with this classification. New-to-market NTM - The name of the circumstances under which a company exports to a foreign market in which it has either never exported to, has not exported to for the past twenty-four months, or has only exported to because of prior unsolicited orders. Assistance is available to companies with this classification. Newly Industrializing Countries NIC - A group of former developing countries who, due to high levels of economic growth, have grown rapidly in recent years. Nominal Cash Flow - A cash flow expressed in nominal terms if the actual dollars to be received or paid out are given.
Non-governmental Organizations NGOs - Legally constituted, special interest groups created by natural or legal persons with no participation or representation of any government. Non-market Economy - An economy in which the government, through the use of central planning, makes most economic decisions to control economic activity. Non-tariff Barrier - An indirect measure used to discriminate against foreign manufacturers, for example, extensive inspection procedures for foreign imports that create barriers to entering the market. Nonconvertible Currency - A currency is not convertible when both residents and nonresidents are prohibited from converting their holdings of that currency into another currency.
Nonintermediated Debt Market - A financial market in which borrowers governments and large corporations appeal directly to savers for debt capital through the securities markets without using a financial institution as intermediary. Nordic Council - A regional alliance established in between Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Iceland that is dedicated to cooperation among the Nordic countries. This has led to a common labor market, social security, and free movement of citizens across borders. Normal Trade Relations NTR - New name for Most Favored Nation MFN trading status, in which the country which grants this status accords the recipient's imports and exports the most favorable treatment that it accords any country.
North-south Divide - A socio-economic and political division that exists between wealthy developed countries, known collectively as "the North", and poorer developing countries, or "the South. Ocean Bill of Lading - A document required for goods that travel across international waters.
Offering Statement - In the United States, a shortened registration statement required by the Securities and Exchange Commission on debt issues with less than a 9-month maturity. Also known as overall balance. Offshore Financial Centers OFCs - Offer little or no government interference in legitimate business and financial activities. In many cases, OFCs also offer very low or zero tax rates, and provide excellent communication facilities.
Oligopoly - A market dominated by so few sellers that action by any of them will impact both the price of the good and the competitors. Open and Reform Policy - An economic policy enacted by the Chinese government combining central planning with market-oriented reforms to increase productivity, living standards, and technological quality without exacerbating inflation, unemployment, and budget deficits, with the goal of moving from a centrally-planned economy to a market-based one.
Operational Efficiency - Market efficiency with respect to how large an influence transactions costs and other market frictions have on the operation of a market. Orderly Marketing Agreements - Agreements between two or more governments to hold back the growth of trade for certain products by limiting exports and imposing import quotas. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OECD - A group of 30 countries that meets regularly to discuss global issues and make appropriate economic and social policies.
Members include the U. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC - An organization of countries formed in to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum. Outsourcing - A situation in which a firm's functions are performed or provided by a person or group from outside the company. Papau New Guinea-Australia Trade and Commercial Relations Agreement PATCRA - Established in , an agreement between Papua New Guinea and Australia formalizing the traditional trading relationship by which substantially all the trade between the two countries is free of duty and other restrictive regulations of commerce.
Parallel Loan - A loan arrangement in which a company borrows in its home currency and then trades this debt for the foreign currency debt of a foreign counterpart. Paris Convention - Signed in Paris in by 11 initial states the document allows for patents to be filed in other member countries. Partnership - Form of business organization in which two or more co-owners form a business.
In a general partnership each partner is liable for the debts of the partnership. Limited partnership permits some partners to have limited liability. Passive Income - In the U. Patents - A patent grants the sole right for a specific individual or organization to make, use or sell some invention as authorized by the government. Perfect Market Assumptions - A set of assumptions under which the law of one price holds. These assumptions include frictionless markets, rational investors, and equal access to market prices and information. Peril Point - The limit beyond which the reduction of tariff protection in a given industry would cause it serious injury.
Points Quote - An abbreviated form of the outright quote used by traders in the interbank market. Political Risk - The risk that a sovereign host government will unexpectedly change the rules of the game under which businesses operate. Political risk includes both macro and micro risks. Polycentric Staffing - A staffing policy in a multinational enterprise in which host-country nationals are recruited to manage subsidiaries in their own country, while parent-country nationals occupy key positions at corporate headquarters.
Power Distance - The extent to which a society accepts hierarchical differences. Predatory Pricing - Practice of temporarily selling below survival costs or giving goods away to undermine or eliminate the existing competition. Predatory pricing is an abuse of dominant position, and is illegal in several countries. Price Discrimination - The practice of charging different prices for the same product in different markets.
Price Elasticity of Demand - The sensitivity of quantity sold to a percentage change in price. Pricing Constraints - Pricing constraints limit the prices a company may set for their goods or services. Pricing Controls - Pricing controls establish and maintain the maximum price levels goods or services can have, especially during times of inflation or war. Privatization - A process whereby publicly owned enterprises are sold to private investors contrast with nationalization. Pro Forma Invoice - An invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value, and important specifications.
Production Possibilities Schedule - The maximum amount of goods for example, food and clothing that a country is able to produce given its labor supply. Production Sharing - Production sharing occurs when a producer chooses to make a product in stages - and in different countries - so that the firm can employ the lowest-cost resources in the production process. Progressive Taxation - A convex tax schedule that results in a higher effective tax rate on high income levels than on low-income levels.
Promissory Note - Financial document in which the buyer agrees to make payment to the seller at a specified time. Protectionism - Protection of local industries through tariffs, quotas, and regulations that discriminate against foreign businesses. Protocol relating to Trade Negotiations among Developing Countries - An agreement negotiated under GATT auspices in , providing for reciprocal tariff and other trade concessions among developing countries. Psychic Distance - The similarities or lack thereof between country markets. This concept takes into account geographic distance, cultural similarities, linguistic aspects, legal systems and methods of conducting business.
Purchasing Agent - Someone who buys goods in his or her country on behalf of foreign buyers. Purchasing power parity is a measurement of a currency's value based on the buying power within its own domestic economy. Quantitive Restrictions QR - Restrictions on trade, generally in the form of quotas, that limit the quantity o a good or service that can be imported or exported. Quid Pro Quo - An equal exchange that a person or firm makes with another person or firm.
Quota - The quantity of goods of a specific kind that a country permits to be imported without restriction or imposition of additional duties. Real Exchange Rate - A measure of the nominal exchange rate that has been adjusted for inflation differentials since an arbitrarily defined base period. Realignment - The coordinated revaluation and devaluation of the currencies of several countries. Production rights may or may not be transferred. Reconsignment - In shipping, it is the change in either the name of the consignee, the place of delivery, or relinquishment of the shipment by the carrier at the point of origin.
Regional Development Banks RDBs - Banks that are owned and operated by member nations; they are designed to extend development loans and provide other assistance to member nations. Regional Value Content RVC - A rule that requires a product to be made up of a certain percentage of originating content. Registration Statement - In the United States, a statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on securities issues that discloses relevant information to the public. Remittance - The forwarding of funds from one party to another as payment for goods or services.
Repatriation - The act of remitting cash flows from a foreign affiliate to the parent firm. Reservation Price - The price below above which a seller purchaser is unwilling to go. Restrictive Endorsement - Endorsement transferring title or right to a named party. Rules of Origin - Rules used to determine in what country a good will be considered as actually made for tariff and other trade purposes. Sanitary Certificate - An inspection by a government agency that confirms that cargo meets the minimum sanitary requirements. Trade act of , section is a provision that permits imports to be restricted in a certain industry, for a limited time, if those imports have caused injury to U.
Section - In U. Segmented Market - A market that is partially or wholly isolated from other markets by one or more market imperfections. Seller's Market - Exists when the demand for a good outweighs the supply, and so the economic forces of business cause the goods to be priced at or closer to the vendor's estimate of their value. Semi-strong Form Efficient Market - A market in which prices fully reflect all publicly available information. Settlement of Disputes - A declaration made by the United Nations UN stating that any water-based international disagreement must be settled in a peaceful and diplomatic manner.
Shipper - Consignor, exporter, or seller who may be the same or different parties named in shipping documents as the party responsible for initiating a shipment, and who may also bear the freight cost. Smoot Hawley Act - Passed in , this protectionist act increased import duties to the highest rate ever imposed by the United States, resulting in the downfall of the world trade system.
Social Capital - Physical or real capital that is owned by the public sector rather than by private firms. Soft Currency - A currency which is not readily accepted in exchange for other currencies or convertible to gold.
Sogo Shosha - A Japanese international general trading firm with integrated and coordinated services and production, such as Mitsubishi, and characterized by intercorporate shareholding and diversification to minimize risk, intra-group executives, and a presidential council. Sole Proprietorship - A business owned by a single individual. The sole proprietorship pays no corporate income tax but has unlimited liability for business debts and obligations. South Asian Preferential Trade Arrangement SAPTA - An organization promoting and sustaining mutual trade and economic cooperation among Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka through the exchange of concessions in respect to tariffs, para-tariffs, non-tariff barriers and direct trade measures.
The countries engage in the free exchange of goods across their borders, and a share a common external tariff and excise duties, as well as the revenues generated by them. Southern African Development Community SADC - An inter-governmental organization focused on furthering socio-economic cooperation and integration as well as political and security cooperation among 15 South African states. Special Drawing Right SDR - An international reserve created by the International Monetary Fund and allocated to member countries to supplement foreign exchange reserves.
Spot Exchange-rate - Price that is quoted for immediate spot settlement. Spot settlement is normally one to two business days from trade date. Spot Market - A market in which trades are made for immediate delivery or delivery in the very near future. Stabilization Policies - Government policies designed to promote economic growth, steady employment, and stable prices.
Structural Impediments Initiative - A agreement between the United States and Japan aimed at trying to decrease non-tariff barriers restricting imports into Japan. Subpart F Income - In the U. Subsidiary - A firm controlled by another firm called the parent through the ownership of greater than 50 percent of its voting stock. Subsidized Financing - Financing that is provided by a host government and that is issued at a below-market interest rate.
Subsidy - Monetary assistance granted by the government to an individual or other entity in support of an activity that is regarded as being in the public interest. Subsistence Agriculture - Small-scale agriculture designed to meet the consumption needs of individual households. Synthetic Forward Position - A forward position constructed through borrowing in one currency, lending in another currency, and offsetting these transactions in the spot exchange market.
Tare Weight - The weight of a container and packing materials that excludes the weight of the goods it contains. SEC guidelines. These foreign institutions then maintain a secondary market in the foreign market. Tariff Anomaly - The state of having a tariff on raw materials or semi-processed products be higher than the tariff on the corresponding finished product.
Tariff Engineering - The act of manufacturing something in order to get preferable duty treatment. Tariff Escalation - A situation in which duties are low or non-existent for raw materials, moderate for semi-manufactured goods and relatively high for finished products. Tariff-quota - A tariff that is set at a lower rate until a specified quantity the quota of goods has been imported, at which point the tariff increases for additional imports.
Tariffs - Taxes on imported goods and services, levied by governments to raise revenues and create barriers to trade. Tax Arbitrage - Attempting to profit by exploiting the differences in tax rates or tax systems. Tax Haven - A country or region imposing low or no taxes on foreign source income.
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The tax benefits of tax-haven affiliates were largely removed in the United States by the Tax Reform Act of Tax Holiday - A reduced tax rate provided by a government as an inducement to foreign direct investment. Tax Neutrality - Taxes that do not interfere with the natural flow of capital toward its most productive use.
Tax Treaty - An agreement specifying what items of income will be taxed by the authorities of the country where the income is earned. Technical Analysis - Any method of forecasting future exchange rates based on the history of exchange rates. Territorial Tax System - A tax system that taxes domestic income but not foreign income.
Tied Loan - A loan issued by a government requiring the borrower to spend the funds in the lending country. Trade Barrier - A governmental policy, action, or practice that intentionally interrupts the free flow of goods or services between countries. Trade Deficit - Occurs when the value of a country's exports is less than the value of its imports. Trade Surplus - A situation in which a country's exports exceed its imports. It represents a net inflow of domestic currency from foreign markets, and is the opposite of a trade deficit, which would represent a net outflow.
Trade Surplus - Occurs when the value of a country's exports is greater than the value of its imports. Trademarks - A symbol or words that are legally registered to a company or product. Transaction Exposure - Changes in the value of contractual monetary cash flows as a result of changes in currency values. Transaction Statement - A document that clearly outlines the terms and conditions agreed upon between an importer and an exporter. Transfer Pricing - The price one unit of a company charges to another unit of the same company for goods or services exchanged between the two.
Also known as accounting exposure. Transnational Corporation - An enterprise comprising entities in more than one country which operate under a system of decision-making that permits coherent policies and a common strategy. Transparency - The observed degree of clarity, openness, measurability, and verifiability in a law, regulation, agreement, or trade practice.
Treaty of Rome - Treaty, signed in , which inaugurated the European Economic Community, establishing a common market in a variety of products between member states. Tripartite Agreement - An agreement among three parties. Turnkey Project - A project in which a firm agrees to set up an operating plan for a foreign client and hand over the "key" when the plant is fully operational.
Uncertainty Avoidance - The extent to which a society tolerates uncertainty and ambiguity. Uniform Customs and Practice UCP - Internationally recognized set of regulations banks are obligated to follow when documenting letters of credit. It works to achieve this goal by acting as a forum for intergovernmental deliberations with an aim at consensus building; conducting research, policy analysis, and data collection; and by providing technical assistance tailored to the specific needs of different developing countries. It mobilizes knowledge, skills, information, and technology to promote productive employment, a competitive economy, and a sound environment.
Unsustainable Debt - A financial condition in which a country is unable to service its foreign external debt without decimating its economy. Usury - The practice of charging or paying exorbitant interest on a loan or other transaction. Note: in Islamic societies, charging, or receiving any amount of interest is considered usury.
Value-added Tax VAT - A sales tax collected at each stage of production in proportion to the value added during that stage. Vehicle Currency - A currency that plays a central role in the foreign exchange market e. Voluntary Export Restraint VER - A quota on trade imposed from the exporting country's side, instead of the importer's; usually imposed at the request of the importing country's government.
Weak Form Efficient Market - A market in which prices fully reflect the information in past prices. Weight Note - A document issued by either the exporter or a third party declaring the weight of goods in a consignment. They all share a common currency and have a central bank to oversee it.
Wharfage Charge - A charge assessed by a pier or dock owner for handling incoming or outgoing cargo. Withholding Tax - A tax on dividend or interest income that is withheld for payment of taxes in a host country. Payment is typically withheld by the financial institution distributing the payment.
World Bank - An international organization created at Breton Woods in to help in the reconstruction and development of its member nations. Its goal is to improve the quality of life for people in the poorer regions of the world by promoting sustainable economic development. See also International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Notice I said potential matches. As always, do your due diligence to make sure items are a true match. Ebates Cash Back.
Cash back for online shopping is one of the huge perks of doing OA. The Ebates extension makes it super easy to remember to get cash back on your OA purchases. When I first got started doing OA, I tried to be rebellious and just do it without all the extensions. Why, why, why? I was always forgetting to go through my cash back websites first, and I was leaving money on the table by not getting a percentage back. With the Ebates extension, when I first start my shopping session on a retail store website, I click the button at the top of the browser to activate my Ebates account and get cash back without having to navigate to a separate website first.
So helpful for forgetful old me. This one works the same way as the Ebates extension, but for cash back in the form of Swagbucks. Some retail stores Walmart and Disney Store, for instance tend to give a higher percentage back if you go through Swagbucks than if you go through Ebates for your purchase. The percentages can change from day to day, so check the information that pops up at the top of your browser window before you choose which one to activate for your purchase.
The Honey extension works by automating the process of applying promotional codes and coupons to your online purchases. I know it saves me hours of my valuable time clicking and comparing products on Amazon and retail websites. When I am looking at an Amazon product page, Scanalyze adds a box below the product title with the sales rank and sub-sales rank, saving time from scrolling down to the bottom of the page to find this information. Yours might be different. If it is, let us know. What are your favorite Chrome extensions for OA? Do you use a different browser than Chrome? Let us know in the comments.
Rebecca is a writer and editor by background, but in recent years she has grown to love working with her husband Stephen to build their Amazon FBA business. She also loves camping and hiking with her family, gardening, running, and getting lost in a good book.